The major electrical loads incorporating the welding sets, induction furnaces, converters, and induction motors are entirely inductive. The inductive loads need reactive power as well as working power. The reactive power is measured in the kilo-volt-amperes-reactive, and working power is measured in kilowatts for operation. People use the working power to perform real work. However, the reactive power is important for supporting the magnetic field by the inductive loads. When both powers are combined, then they form an apparent power. This apparent power is measured in kVA, which is known as kilovolt-amperes.
The power factor is the measure of efficiency. With its help, the electric loads are converted into the electric power to perform the important work. PFC is also known as the ratio of working power to the apparent power. The high PFC is an indicator that shows electrical loads are using the power properly. However, the low PFC shows that the energy is continuously wasting and reducing the electrical system capacity. The reason behind low PFC can be the difference amid the voltage and current at the terminals of an electrical load.
To stop the energy wastage, a few electricity supply companies provide their customers with the PFC that is below the particular value. It provides an incentive to the customers with the right PF that is 0.95. It reassures the customers to install the power factor correction capacitors in their system of electricity.
When it comes to the advantages, then there are several advantages of adding power factor correction capacitors. Some of them are specified below:
• Improve Voltage
• Maximize the capacity of the system
• Decrease losses
• Decrease the electricity bills
Before choosing the capacitors for PFC correction, one should consider the load size, load constancy, load capacity, type of load, utility billing, and techniques of load starting.
It is important to install the power factor correction capacitors as banks of capacitors when the large facilities or substations are involved. In the matter of the linear loads, it is easy to install them as individual capacitors. It is not so hard to replace these capacitors as they do not need separate switching. However, the bank installation of these capacitors has a low price per kVAR. It also gives the accurate PFC correction capacitance when using the automatic switching systems.
Contingent upon the requirements of the specific facility, it is possible to install either fixed or mechanically switched capacitor sets. The fixed PFC controller bank can switch ON when the inductive loads are ON, OFF when the individual loads are OFF. These capacitors are strengthened when the PFC correction is required. In the multiple load's facilities, the PFC correction and load conditions require change more often. The automatic capacitor systems are ideal for these facilities. They can easily control the under-correction and over-correction.
The large inductive loads like big motors, arc furnaces, oil drilling rigs, auto crashes, and wind turbines have dynamic load attributes. For these big dynamic loads, it is imperative to make use of the automatic capacitor systems. In this case, the transient-free electronic capacitor banks will work great.